Notes of “Physics XII” for FSc Part 2 published by Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. These notes are very helpful to prepare Physics paper of FSc Part 2 for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Punjab, Pakistan.

Chapter 12: Electrostatics
The branch of Physics which deals with the charges at rest is called electrostatics.The electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of distance between …read more and download

Chapter 13: Current Electricity
The amount of electric charge that flows through a cross section of a conductor per unit time is known as electric current.If ∆Q is the amount of charge flow through a cross-section in time ∆t , then the electric current I is described …read more and download

Chapter 14: Electromagnetism
When the heavy current is passed through a straight conductor,a magnetic field is set up in the region surrounding a current carrying wire.The lines of force are circular and their direction depends upon the direction of current.The magnetic field lasts only as long as the current is fl …read more and download

Chapter 15: Electromagnetic Induction
When a conductor that is moved through a magnetic field, the electric current flow through the circuit. The emf produced in the conductor is called induced emf, and the current generated is called induced current. This phenomenon is known …read more and download

Chapter 16: Alternating Current
The current that is produced by a voltage source whose polarity keeps on reversing with time is called alternating current.The value of the voltage or current that exist in a circuit at any instant of time t measured from some reference point …read more and download

Chapter 17: Physics of Solids
The solids in which the atoms, ions and molecules are arranged periodically are called crystalline solids.The crystalline solids show the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction.Every crystalline solid has sharp melting point i.e., for every …read more and download

Chapter 18: Electronics
Electronics is that branch of physics which deals with the emission behaviour and effects of electrons(as in electron tubes and transistors) and with designing electronic devices such as diodes, ICs, microchips and …read more and download

Chapter 19: Dawn of Modern Physics
The term modern physics refers to the post-Newtonian conception of physics. The term implies that classical descriptions of phenomena are lacking, and that an accurate, “modern”, description of reality requires theories to incorporate elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinian relativity, or both …read more and download

Chapter 20: Atomic Spectra
The branch of physics which deals with the investigations of wavelengts and intensities of electromagnetic radiations emitted or absorbed by atoms is called …read more and download

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