Notes of “Physics XII” for FSc Part 2 published by Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro. These notes are very helpful to prepare Physics paper of FSc Part 2 for Sindh Board. These can also be consider as refrence notes for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Pakistan.

Chapter 11: Heat
In physics, heating is transfer of energy, from a hotter body to a colder one, other than by work or transfer of matter. It occurs spontaneously whenever a suitable physical pathway exists between the bodies …read more and download

Chapter 12: Electrostatics
The branch of Physics which deals with the charges at rest is called electrostatics.The electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of distance between …read more and download

Chapter 13: Current Electricity
The amount of electric charge that flows through a cross section of a conductor per unit time is known as electric current.If ∆Q is the amount of charge flow through a cross-section in time ∆t , then the electric current I is described …read more and download

Chapter 14: Magnetism and Electromagnetism
When the heavy current is passed through a straight conductor,a magnetic field is set up in the region surrounding a current carrying wire.The lines of force are circular and their direction depends upon the direction of current.The magnetic field lasts only as long as the current is fl …read more and download

Chapter 15: Electrical Measuring Instruments
Electrical testing and measurement devices can tell you if a circuit or wire is energized as well as tell you how much voltage or current an …read more and download

Chapter 16: Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is a fundamental phenomenon of electromagnetism, behaving as waves and also as particles called photons which travel through space carrying radiant energy. …read more and download

Chapter 17: Advent of Modern Physics
The term modern physics refers to the post-Newtonian conception of physics. The term implies that classical descriptions of phenomena are lacking, and that an accurate, “modern”, description of reality requires theories to incorporate elements of quantum mechanics or Einsteinian relativity, or both …read more and download

Chapter 18: Atomic Spectra
The branch of physics which deals with the investigations of wavelengts and intensities of electromagnetic radiations emitted or absorbed by atoms is called …read more and download

Chapter 19: The Atomic Nucleus
The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom. It was discovered in 1911 as a result of Ernest Rutherford's interpretation of the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. The proton–neutron model of the nucleus was proposed by Dmitry Ivanenko in 1932.[1] Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus …read more and download

Chapter 20: Nuclear Radiations
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging …read more and download

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