## Notes (Practical Centre, Karachi)

Notes of “Physics XI” for FSc Part 1 published by Sindh Textbook Board, Jamshoro. These notes are very helpful to prepare Physics paper of FSc Part 2 for Sindh Board. These can also be consider as refrence notes for Federal Board, Multan Board, Faisalabad Board, Sargodha Board, Gujranwala Board, DG Khan Board, Rawalpindi Board or any other board of Pakistan.

**Chapter 01: The Scope of Physics**

The ultimate aim of physics is to find a unified set of laws governing matter, motion, and energy at small (microscopic) subatomic distances, at the human (macroscopic) scale of everyday life, and out to the largest distances (e.g., those on the extragalactic scale) …read more and download

**Chapter 02: Vectors**

This is a vector: A vector has magnitude (how long it is) and direction: The length of the line shows its magnitude and the arrowhead points in the …read more and download

**Chapter 03: Motion**

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time and its reference point. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, direction, velocity, acceleration, and time.[1] Motion is observed by attaching a frame of reference to a body and measuring its change in position relative to that frame …read more and download

**Chapter 04: Motion in 2-Dimensions**

You understand velocity and acceleration well in one-dimension. Now we can explore scenarios that are even more fun. With a little bit of trigonometry (you might want to review your basic trig, especially what sin and cos are), we can think about whether a baseball can clear the “green monster” at Fenway Park. …read more and download

**Chapter 05: Torque, Angular Momentum & Equilibrium**

Torque, moment or moment of force (see the terminology below) is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object …read more and download

**Chapter 06: Gravitation**

For most situations gravity is well approximated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which postulates that the gravitational force of two bodies of mass is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them …read more and download

**Chapter 07: Work, Power & Energy**

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting on a body, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done on the ball as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground …read more and download

**Chapter 08: Wave Motion & Sound**

Wave motion, propagation of disturbances—that is, deviations from a state of rest or equilibrium—from place to place in a regular and organized way. Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties. …read more and download

**Chapter 09: Nature of Light**

Visible light, as with all types of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), is experimentally found to always move at this speed in vacuum. In common with all types of EMR, visible light is emitted and absorbed in tiny “packets” called photons …read more and download

**Chapter 10: Geometrical Optics**

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of “rays”. The “ray” in geometric optics is an abstraction, or “instrument”, which can be used to approximately model how light will propagate. Light rays are defined to propagate in a rectilinear path as they travel in a homogeneous medium …read more and download